Energy efficient data centres

In 2020, due to the corona crises, digital infrastructures have provided indispensable added value for the cohesion of our society. As a substantial component of this infrastructure, data centers perform the primary digital work and act reliably in the background, broadly unnoticed since decades. Undeniably, the reliability of nowadays data centers, the flexibility of digital processes, their joint resilience against unforeseen has accelerated the transformation to digital ways of living and working. On the one hand, this new digital area has led to a reduced environmental impact due to changes in mobility and other behavioural constraints; on the other hand, it has generated increased demands for existing data center capacities and data center construction. Ultimately and again, this growth will lead to increased demands for resources such as electricity and emissions such as waste heat and electronic or construction waste. The economic pressure of is growth offers also an opportunity to show up with new innovative demand oriented data center architectures and holistic solutions, devoted to non-functional requirements and values of our society like sustainability and resource efficiency.

9th International Workshop on Energy Efficient Data Centres (E2DC 2021)

The necessary scientific dialogue was and is the DNA E2DC 2021 workshop. It studies innovative methods to improve energy-efficiency and sustainability of all imaginable data centre variations. Importantly, E2DC regards a broader context of data centre ecosystem by investigating its integration and interactions with smart grids, smart cities and energy intense applications or platform ecosystems. A wide spectrum of topics ranging from the use of renewable energy over the control and optimisation of infrastructure services and emissions, demand response techniques to federation of distributed data centres.

This year, beside established topics, we will discuss the impact of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) on data centers. This technology can help to improve data centers in all areas, where mastering an increased system complexity results into higher efficiency, less emissions, more automation or better integration. This technology will foreseeably need optimized data center architectures and, analogous to the HPC data centers, challenge the one fits all concept and demand specialized variations. In addition to the focus on energy informatics, we specifically welcome interdisciplinary works.

Important Dates

March 31th , 2020
April 14th , 2020

Paper submission

April 30th , 2021

Notification of authors

May 18th , 2021

Camera-ready papers

Call for Papers

The workshop invites original papers up to 6 pages that were not published before and are currently not under consideration and/or review for publication elsewhere. Topics include, but are not limited to:

  1. Innovative or improved architectures optimizing the data centre ecosystems to cope with dynamic demands and requirements of large service platform ecosystems:
    • Data centre integration with smart cities, smart grids and renewable energy sources
    • Modular DCs, Multicore Infrastructure DCs, DC Life Cycle Management
    • Best practices for sector coupling or symbiotic integration of data centres infrastructure into existing facilities (e.g. buildings, wind plants and other novel locations)
    • Novel cooling approaches, direct liquid cooling, heat re-use, thermal storage
  2. Achieving energy efficiency by the innovative use of new hardware and software technologies, e.g.:
    • Microservers, low power CPUs, embedded SoCs
    • Methods to facilitate the use of hardware accelerators at large scale, the use and integration of heterogeneous systems
    • Virtualization and service architectures, containers, lightweight virtualization, microservices
    • Approaches for application centric and distributed/on the fly processing of data and information
    • New architectures and management methods for distributed data centres, edge data centres, fog computing and edge computing
  3. Methods to improve uptake of energy efficient solutions in data centres, incentives that increase focus on energy efficiency and reduction of emissions:
    • New business models and programs to make the use of energy efficient technologies profitable
    • Metrics beyond PUE
    • Green and energy-related SLAs
    • Engaging end users in limiting energy consumption and carbon footprint
    • Other incentives leading to increased adoption of energy efficient technologies in data centres
  4. Execution environments for and application of AI/ML:
    • Specialized DC architectures adapted to the IT systems executing AI application or platforms
    • Innovative application of AI using forecast, anomaly detection, clustering or predictive maintenance to obtain or gain sustainability and resource efficiency
    • AI optimized dc management of complex infrastructures and subsystems
    • Innovative application of AI like forecast, anomaly detection, clustering or predictive maintenance to obtain or gain sustainability and resource efficiency
    • Automated AI feature extraction for e.g individual key performance indicators or data center metrics for comparisons
    • AI based resource purchasing and procurement strategies
    • Automated anomaly detection and predictive maintenance optimizing risk managemt
    • AI based operation unlocking potential of demand response programs
    • Multi-criteria selection of configuration for trade-off between performance, efficiency, and gains from interaction with other stakeholders (e.g. smart grids, heat operators, consumers of heat, etc.)

Submission and publication of the work

The workshop will be co-located with ACM eEnergy 2021 Please submit your manuscript via submission portal. Manuscripts will be published in the ACM proceedings and must adhere to ACM format. Submission implies the willingness of at least one author to register and present the paper at E2DC. The organizers reserve the right to exclude a paper from publication if it is not presented. For more information please contact the organizers: Ariel Oleksiak (ariel at, Hayk Shoukourian (shoukourian at, Gunnar Schomaker (schomaker at


Title: Detailed analysis of operating a pilot 500kW direct fresh air-cooled data center in northern Sweden

Speaker: Jon Summers, Scientific Leader in Data Centres, Research Institutes of Sweden, Swedish Institute of Computer Science (RISE SICS) North

Jon Summers is Scientific Leader in Data Centres at Research Institutes of Sweden (RISE), Adjunct Professor in Fluid Mechanics at Lulea Technical University in Sweden and a senior academic from the Institute of Thermofluids at the University of Leeds in the UK. During the last 25 years, he has worked on a number of government and industry funded projects which have required different levels of computational modelling. Having built and managed compute clusters to support many research projects, Jon chaired the High Performance Computing User Group for 20 years at the University of Leeds. In the last ten years Jon’s research has focused on a range of thermal management and energy flow projects within the Data Centre, Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning and industrial sectors. Since early 2013 Jon has been involved in liquid cooled IT research projects, focussing both at the data centre and the microprocessor scales, which has been further transformed by the opportunities in integrated digital infrastructure research at RISE. As a result of this activity around the thermal and energy management of microelectronic systems, Jon has developed an interest of the physical limits of digital processes, which has led to many invited talks to the data centre community.

Abstract: The BodenTypeDC was an EU Horizon 2020 funded project (GA 768875) that demonstrates bringing to market more energy and cost efficient data centers. The project involved Hungarian data center integrator, H1 Systems, UK direct fresh air-cooling equipment supplier, EcoCooling, German research institute, Fraunhofer IOSB, Swedish business agency, BBA, and Swedish research institute, RISE, that combined their expertise to build and operate for 1.5 years a 3 POD data center with different IT hardware, ranging from Open Compute Project CPU based equipment to GPUs and ASICs. The data center was extensively monitored and the telemetry data has been published as Open Research Data and by the end of the project in December 2020 a detailed analysis has been performed and will be presented.


9:00 - 9:05 CEST

Introduction & Welcome

Speakers: Ariel Oleksiak, Hayk Shoukourian

9:05 - 9:45 CEST


Title: Detailed analysis of operating a pilot 500kW direct fresh air-cooled data center in northern Sweden
Speaker: Jon Summers (Scientific Leader in Data Centres, Research Institutes of Sweden, Swedish Institute of Computer Science (RISE SICS) North)

9:45 - 10:00 CEST

Coffee break

10:00 - 11:15 CEST: Session 1 – Session Chair: Hayk Shoukourian

10:00 - 10:25 CEST

Flexibility Management of Data Centers to Provide Energy Services in the Smart Grid
M. Antal, T. Cioara, I. Anghel, C. Antal, I. Salomie

10:25 - 10:50 CEST

A Three-Level Modelling Approach for Asynchronous Speed Scaling in High-Performance Data Centres
A. Rumyantsev, R. Basmadjian, A. Golovin, S. Astaf'ev

10:50 - 11:15 CEST

Towards a Holistic Controller: Reinforcement Learning for Data Center Control
A. Heimerson, R. Brännvall, J. Sjölund, J. Eker, J. Gustafsson

11:15 - 11:45 CEST: Project Session

11:15 - 11:30 CEST

RENergetic: Supporting Energy Islands through the Utilization of Data Center Heat
S. Klingert, A. Oleksiak

11:30 - 11:45 CEST

WindCORES Status Report: Sustainable Business Evolution
G. Schomaker

11:45 - 12:30 CEST

Lunch break

12:30 - 13:20 CEST: Session 2 – Session Chair: Ariel Oleksiak

12:30 - 12:55 CEST

A Guide to Reducing Carbon Emissions through Data Center Geographical Load Shifting
J. Lindberg, Y. Abdennadher, J. Chen, B. Lesieutre, L. Roald

12:55 - 13:20 CEST

Energy and Exergy-Aware Workload Assignment for Air-Cooled Data Centers
R. Gupta, D. Down, I. Puri

13:20 - 14:25 CEST

Commonly creating a roadmap towards a more sustainable future of data centers and data center industries: Using the interactive Miro Board we will together work on a set of questions for research and policy.
Expected Result: a common research roadmap paper
Organizers: Sonja Klingert, Gunnar Schomaker

14:25 - 14:30 CEST

Wrap-up and next steps
Ariel Oleksiak, Hayk Shoukourian

Workshop Chairs

Sonja Klingert

University of Mannheim, Germany

Ariel Oleksiak

Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center, Poland

Gunnar Schomaker

Software Innovation Campus Paderborn, Germany

Hayk Shoukourian

Leibniz Supercomputing Centre (LRZ), Germany

Technical Programme Committee

Hermann de Meer

University of Passau, Germany

Robert Basmadjian

TU Clausthal, Germany

Riccardo Pinciroli

Gran Sasso Institute, Italy

Hongyang Sun

Vanderbilt University, United States of America

George Da Costa

University of Toulouse, France

Xavier Hesselbach-Serra

Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Spain

Jon Summers

Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden

Tudor Cioara

Technical University Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Arun Vishwanath

IBM, Australia

Boudewijn R. Haverkort

Tilburg School of Humanities & Digital Sciences


Ariel Oleksiak (ariel at
Gunnar Schomaker (schomaker at